• Container Provided Filters

    Table of Contents

    Introduction

    Tomcat provides a number of Filters which may be configured for use with all web applications using $CATALINA_BASE/conf/web.xml or may be configured for individual web applications by configuring them in the application's WEB-INF/web.xml. Each filter is described below.

    This description uses the variable name $CATALINA_BASE to refer the base directory against which most relative paths are resolved. If you have not configured Tomcat for multiple instances by setting a CATALINA_BASE directory, then $CATALINA_BASE will be set to the value of $CATALINA_HOME, the directory into which you have installed Tomcat.

    Add Default Character Set Filter

    Introduction

    The HTTP specification is clear that if no character set is specified for media sub-types of the "text" media type, the ISO-8859-1 character set must be used. However, browsers may attempt to auto-detect the character set. This may be exploited by an attacker to perform an XSS attack. Internet Explorer and other browsers have an option to enable this behavior.

    This filter prevents the attack by explicitly setting a character set. Unless the provided character set is explicitly overridden by the user the browser will adhere to the explicitly set character set, thus preventing the XSS attack.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Add Default Character Set Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.AddDefaultCharsetFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Add Default Character Set Filter supports the following initialization parameters:

    Attribute Description
    encoding

    Name of the character set which should be set, if no other character set was set explicitly by a Servlet. This parameter has two special values default and system. A value of system uses the JVM wide default character set, which is usually set by locale. A value of default will use ISO-8859-1.

    CORS Filter

    Introduction

    This filter is an implementation of W3C's CORS (Cross-Origin Resource Sharing) specification, which is a mechanism that enables cross-origin requests.

    The filter works by adding required Access-Control-* headers to HttpServletResponse object. The filter also protects against HTTP response splitting. If request is invalid, or is not permitted, then request is rejected with HTTP status code 403 (Forbidden). A flowchart that demonstrates request processing by this filter is available.

    The minimal configuration required to use this filter is:

    <filter>
      <filter-name>CorsFilter</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.CorsFilter</filter-class>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>CorsFilter</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the CORS Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.CorsFilter.

    Initialisation parameters

    The CORS Filter supports following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    cors.allowed.origins

    A list of origins that are allowed to access the resource. A * can be specified to enable access to resource from any origin. Otherwise, a whitelist of comma separated origins can be provided. Eg: http://www.w3.org, https://www.apache.org. Defaults: The empty String. (No origin is allowed to access the resource).

    cors.allowed.methods

    A comma separated list of HTTP methods that can be used to access the resource, using cross-origin requests. These are the methods which will also be included as part of Access-Control-Allow-Methods header in pre-flight response. Eg: GET, POST. Defaults: GET, POST, HEAD, OPTIONS

    cors.allowed.headers

    A comma separated list of request headers that can be used when making an actual request. These headers will also be returned as part of Access-Control-Allow-Headers header in a pre-flight response. Eg: Origin,Accept. Defaults: Origin, Accept, X-Requested-With, Content-Type, Access-Control-Request-Method, Access-Control-Request-Headers

    cors.exposed.headers

    A comma separated list of headers other than simple response headers that browsers are allowed to access. These are the headers which will also be included as part of Access-Control-Expose-Headers header in the pre-flight response. Eg: X-CUSTOM-HEADER-PING,X-CUSTOM-HEADER-PONG. Default: None. Non-simple headers are not exposed by default.

    cors.preflight.maxage

    The amount of seconds, browser is allowed to cache the result of the pre-flight request. This will be included as part of Access-Control-Max-Age header in the pre-flight response. A negative value will prevent CORS Filter from adding this response header to pre-flight response. Defaults: 1800

    cors.support.credentials

    A flag that indicates whether the resource supports user credentials. This flag is exposed as part of Access-Control-Allow-Credentials header in a pre-flight response. It helps browser determine whether or not an actual request can be made using credentials. Defaults: false

    cors.request.decorate

    A flag to control if CORS specific attributes should be added to HttpServletRequest object or not. Defaults: true

    Here's an example of a more advanced configuration, that overrides defaults:

    <filter>
      <filter-name>CorsFilter</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.CorsFilter</filter-class>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.allowed.origins</param-name>
        <param-value>*</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.allowed.methods</param-name>
        <param-value>GET,POST,HEAD,OPTIONS,PUT</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.allowed.headers</param-name>
        <param-value>Content-Type,X-Requested-With,accept,Origin,Access-Control-Request-Method,Access-Control-Request-Headers</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.exposed.headers</param-name>
        <param-value>Access-Control-Allow-Origin,Access-Control-Allow-Credentials</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.support.credentials</param-name>
        <param-value>true</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>cors.preflight.maxage</param-name>
        <param-value>10</param-value>
      </init-param>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>CorsFilter</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    CORS Filter and HttpServletRequest attributes

    CORS Filter adds information about the request, in HttpServletRequest object, for consumption downstream. Following attributes are set, if cors.request.decorate initialisation parameter is true:

    • cors.isCorsRequest: Flag to determine if request is a CORS request.
    • cors.request.origin: The Origin URL, i.e. the URL of the page from where the request originated.
    • cors.request.type: Type of CORS request. Possible values:
      • SIMPLE: A request which is not preceded by a pre-flight request.
      • ACTUAL: A request which is preceded by a pre-flight request.
      • PRE_FLIGHT: A pre-flight request.
      • NOT_CORS: A normal same-origin request.
      • INVALID_CORS: A cross-origin request, which is invalid.
    • cors.request.headers: Request headers sent as Access-Control-Request-Headers header, for a pre-flight request.

    CSRF Prevention Filter

    Introduction

    This filter provides basic CSRF protection for a web application. The filter assumes that it is mapped to /* and that all URLs returned to the client are encoded via a call to HttpServletResponse#encodeRedirectURL(String) or HttpServletResponse#encodeURL(String).

    This filter prevents CSRF by generating a nonce and storing it in the session. URLs are also encoded with the same nonce. When the next request is received the nonce in the request is compared to the nonce in the session and only if they are the same is the request allowed to continue.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the CSRF Prevention Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.CsrfPreventionFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The CSRF Prevention Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    denyStatus

    HTTP response status code that is used when rejecting denied request. The default value is 403.

    entryPoints

    A comma separated list of URLs that will not be tested for the presence of a valid nonce. They are used to provide a way to navigate back to a protected application after having navigated away from it. Entry points will be limited to HTTP GET requests and should not trigger any security sensitive actions.

    nonceCacheSize

    The number of previously issued nonces that will be cached on a LRU basis to support parallel requests, limited use of the refresh and back in the browser and similar behaviors that may result in the submission of a previous nonce rather than the current one. If not set, the default value of 5 will be used.

    randomClass

    The name of the class to use to generate nonces. The class must be an instance of java.util.Random. If not set, the default value of java.security.SecureRandom will be used.

    CSRF Prevention Filter for REST APIs

    Introduction

    This filter provides basic CSRF protection for REST APIs. The CSRF protection is applied only for modifying HTTP requests (different from GET, HEAD, OPTIONS) to protected resources. It is based on a custom header X-CSRF-Token that provides a valid nonce.

    CSRF protection mechanism for REST APIs consists of the following steps:

    • Client asks for a valid nonce. This is performed with a non-modifying "Fetch" request to protected resource.
    • Server responds with a valid nonce mapped to the current user session.
    • Client provides this nonce in the subsequent modifying requests in the frame of the same user session.
    • Server rejects all modifying requests to protected resources that do not contain a valid nonce.

    Basic configuration sample

    On the server side

    • All CSRF protected REST APIs should be protected with an authentication mechanism.
    • Protect modifying REST APIs with this filter.
    • Provide at least one non-modifying operation.
    <filter>
      <filter-name>RestCSRF</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RestCsrfPreventionFilter</filter-class>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>RestCSRF</filter-name>
      <!-- Modifying operations -->
      <url-pattern>/resources/removeResource</url-pattern>
      <url-pattern>/resources/addResource</url-pattern>
      <!-- Non-modifying operations -->
      <url-pattern>/resources/listResources</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    On the client side

    • Make a non-modifying "Fetch" request in order to obtain a valid nonce. This can be done with sending additional header X-CSRF-Token: Fetch
    • Cache the returned session id and nonce in order to provide them in the subsequent modifying requests to protected resources.
    • Modifying requests can be denied and header X-CSRF-Token: Required will be returned in case of invalid or missing nonce, expired session or in case the session id is changed by the server.
    Client Request:
    GET /rest/resources/listResources HTTP/1.1
    X-CSRF-Token: Fetch
    Authorization: Basic ...
    Host: localhost:8080
    ...
    
    Server Response:
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=...; Path=/rest; HttpOnly
    X-CSRF-Token: ...
    ...
    
    Client Request:
    POST /rest/resources/addResource HTTP/1.1
    Cookie: JSESSIONID=...
    X-CSRF-Token: ...
    Authorization: Basic ...
    Host: localhost:8080
    ...
    
    Server Response:
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    ...

    RestCsrfPreventionFilter and HttpServletRequest parameters

    When the client is not able to insert custom headers in its calls to REST APIs there is additional capability to configure URLs for which a valid nonce will be accepted as a request parameter.

    Note: If there is a X-CSRF-Token header, it will be taken with preference over any parameter with the same name in the request. Request parameters cannot be used to fetch new nonce, only header can be used to request a new nonce.

    <filter>
      <filter-name>RestCSRF</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RestCsrfPreventionFilter</filter-class>
      <init-param>
        <param-name>pathsAcceptingParams</param-name>
        <param-value>/resources/removeResource,/resources/addResource</param-value>
      </init-param>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>RestCSRF</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/resources/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the CSRF Prevention Filter for REST APIs is org.apache.catalina.filters.RestCsrfPreventionFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The CSRF Prevention Filter for REST APIs supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    denyStatus

    HTTP response status code that is used when rejecting denied request. The default value is 403.

    pathsAcceptingParams

    A comma separated list of URLs that can accept nonces via request parameter X-CSRF-Token. For use cases when a nonce information cannot be provided via header, one can provide it via request parameters. If there is a X-CSRF-Token header, it will be taken with preference over any parameter with the same name in the request. Request parameters cannot be used to fetch new nonce, only header can be used to request a new nonce.

    randomClass

    The name of the class to use to generate nonces. The class must be an instance of java.util.Random. If not set, the default value of java.security.SecureRandom will be used.

    Expires Filter

    Introduction

    ExpiresFilter is a Java Servlet API port of Apache mod_expires. This filter controls the setting of the Expires HTTP header and the max-age directive of the Cache-Control HTTP header in server responses. The expiration date can set to be relative to either the time the source file was last modified, or to the time of the client access.

    These HTTP headers are an instruction to the client about the document's validity and persistence. If cached, the document may be fetched from the cache rather than from the source until this time has passed. After that, the cache copy is considered "expired" and invalid, and a new copy must be obtained from the source.

    To modify Cache-Control directives other than max-age (see RFC 2616 section 14.9), you can use other servlet filters or Apache Httpd mod_headers module.

    Basic configuration sample

    Basic configuration to add 'Expires' and 'Cache-Control: max-age=' headers to images, css and javascript.

    <filter>
     <filter-name>ExpiresFilter</filter-name>
     <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter</filter-class>
     <init-param>
        <param-name>ExpiresByType image</param-name>
        <param-value>access plus 10 minutes</param-value>
     </init-param>
     <init-param>
        <param-name>ExpiresByType text/css</param-name>
        <param-value>access plus 10 minutes</param-value>
     </init-param>
     <init-param>
        <param-name>ExpiresByType application/javascript</param-name>
        <param-value>access plus 10 minutes</param-value>
     </init-param>
    </filter>
    ...
    <filter-mapping>
     <filter-name>ExpiresFilter</filter-name>
     <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
     <dispatcher>REQUEST</dispatcher>
    </filter-mapping>

    Alternate Syntax

    The ExpiresDefault and ExpiresByType directives can also be defined in a more readable syntax of the form:

    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresDefault</param-name>
     <param-value><base> [plus] {<num> <type>}*</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresByType type</param-name>
     <param-value><base> [plus] {<num> <type>}*</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresByType type;encoding</param-name>
     <param-value><base> [plus] {<num> <type>}*</param-value>
    </init-param>

    where <base> is one of:

    • access
    • now (equivalent to 'access')
    • modification

    The plus keyword is optional. <num> should be an integer value (acceptable to Integer.parseInt()), and <type> is one of:

    • year, years
    • month, months
    • week, weeks
    • day, days
    • hour, hours
    • minute, minutes
    • second, seconds

    For example, any of the following directives can be used to make documents expire 1 month after being accessed, by default:

    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresDefault</param-name>
     <param-value>access plus 1 month</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresDefault</param-name>
     <param-value>access plus 4 weeks</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresDefault</param-name>
     <param-value>access plus 30 days</param-value>
    </init-param>

    The expiry time can be fine-tuned by adding several '<num> <type>' clauses:

    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresByType text/html</param-name>
     <param-value>access plus 1 month 15 days 2 hours</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresByType image/gif</param-name>
     <param-value>modification plus 5 hours 3 minutes</param-value>
    </init-param>

    Note that if you use a modification date based setting, the Expires header will not be added to content that does not come from a file on disk. This is due to the fact that there is no modification time for such content.

    Expiration headers generation eligibility

    A response is eligible to be enriched by ExpiresFilter if :

    1. no expiration header is defined (Expires header or the max-age directive of the Cache-Control header),
    2. the response status code is not excluded by the directive ExpiresExcludedResponseStatusCodes,
    3. the Content-Type of the response matches one of the types defined the in ExpiresByType directives or the ExpiresDefault directive is defined.

    Note : If Cache-Control header contains other directives than max-age, they are concatenated with the max-age directive that is added by the ExpiresFilter.

    Expiration configuration selection

    The expiration configuration if elected according to the following algorithm:

    1. ExpiresByType matching the exact content-type returned by HttpServletResponse.getContentType() possibly including the charset (e.g. 'text/xml;charset=UTF-8'),
    2. ExpiresByType matching the content-type without the charset if HttpServletResponse.getContentType() contains a charset (e.g. 'text/xml;charset=UTF-8' -> 'text/xml'),
    3. ExpiresByType matching the major type (e.g. substring before '/') of HttpServletResponse.getContentType() (e.g. 'text/xml;charset=UTF-8' -> 'text'),
    4. ExpiresDefault

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Expires Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Expires Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    ExpiresExcludedResponseStatusCodes

    This directive defines the http response status codes for which the ExpiresFilter will not generate expiration headers. By default, the 304 status code ("Not modified") is skipped. The value is a comma separated list of http status codes.

    This directive is useful to ease usage of ExpiresDefault directive. Indeed, the behavior of 304 Not modified (which does specify a Content-Type header) combined with Expires and Cache-Control:max-age= headers can be unnecessarily tricky to understand.

    See sample below the table

    ExpiresByType <content-type>

    This directive defines the value of the Expires header and the max-age directive of the Cache-Control header generated for documents of the specified type (e.g., text/html). The second argument sets the number of seconds that will be added to a base time to construct the expiration date. The Cache-Control: max-age is calculated by subtracting the request time from the expiration date and expressing the result in seconds.

    The base time is either the last modification time of the file, or the time of the client's access to the document. Which should be used is specified by the <code> field; M means that the file's last modification time should be used as the base time, and A means the client's access time should be used. The duration is expressed in seconds. A2592000 stands for access plus 30 days in alternate syntax.

    The difference in effect is subtle. If M (modification in alternate syntax) is used, all current copies of the document in all caches will expire at the same time, which can be good for something like a weekly notice that's always found at the same URL. If A ( access or now in alternate syntax) is used, the date of expiration is different for each client; this can be good for image files that don't change very often, particularly for a set of related documents that all refer to the same images (i.e., the images will be accessed repeatedly within a relatively short timespan).

    Note: When the content type includes a charset (e.g. 'ExpiresByType text/xml;charset=utf-8'), Tomcat removes blank chars between the ';' and the 'charset' keyword. Due to this, configuration of an expiration with a charset must not include such a space character.

    See sample below the table

    It overrides, for the specified MIME type only, any expiration date set by the ExpiresDefault directive.

    You can also specify the expiration time calculation using an alternate syntax, described earlier in this document.

    ExpiresDefault

    This directive sets the default algorithm for calculating the expiration time for all documents in the affected realm. It can be overridden on a type-by-type basis by the ExpiresByType directive. See the description of that directive for details about the syntax of the argument, and the "alternate syntax" description as well.

    Sample: exclude response status codes 302, 500 and 503

    <init-param>
     <param-name>ExpiresExcludedResponseStatusCodes</param-name>
     <param-value>302, 500, 503</param-value>
    </init-param>

    Sample for ExpiresByType initialization parameter

    <init-param>
       <param-name>ExpiresByType text/html</param-name>
       <param-value>access plus 1 month 15   days 2 hours</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
    <init-param>
       <!-- 2592000 seconds = 30 days -->
       <param-name>ExpiresByType image/gif</param-name>
       <param-value>A2592000</param-value>
    </init-param>

    Troubleshooting

    To troubleshoot, enable logging on the org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter.

    Extract of logging.properties

    org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter.level = FINE    

    Sample of initialization log message:

    Mar 26, 2010 2:01:41 PM org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter init
    FINE: Filter initialized with configuration ExpiresFilter[
     excludedResponseStatusCode=[304],
     default=null,
     byType={
        image=ExpiresConfiguration[startingPoint=ACCESS_TIME, duration=[10 MINUTE]],
        text/css=ExpiresConfiguration[startingPoint=ACCESS_TIME, duration=[10 MINUTE]],
        text/javascript=ExpiresConfiguration[startingPoint=ACCESS_TIME, duration=[10 MINUTE]]}]

    Sample of per-request log message where ExpiresFilter adds an expiration date is below. The message is on one line and is wrapped here for better readability.

    Mar 26, 2010 2:09:47 PM org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter onBeforeWriteResponseBody
    FINE: Request "/tomcat.gif" with response status "200"
     content-type "image/gif", set expiration date 3/26/10 2:19 PM

    Sample of per-request log message where ExpiresFilter does not add an expiration date:

    Mar 26, 2010 2:10:27 PM org.apache.catalina.filters.ExpiresFilter onBeforeWriteResponseBody
    FINE: Request "/docs/config/manager.html" with response status "200"
     content-type "text/html", no expiration configured

    Failed Request Filter

    Introduction

    This filter triggers parameters parsing in a request and rejects the request if some parameters were skipped during parameter parsing because of parsing errors or request size limitations (such as maxParameterCount attribute in a Connector). This filter can be used to ensure that none parameter values submitted by client are lost.

    Note that parameter parsing may consume the body of an HTTP request, so caution is needed if the servlet protected by this filter uses request.getInputStream() or request.getReader() calls. In general the risk of breaking a web application by adding this filter is not so high, because parameter parsing does check content type of the request before consuming the request body.

    Note, that for the POST requests to be parsed correctly, a SetCharacterEncodingFilter filter must be configured above this one. See CharacterEncoding page in the FAQ for details.

    The request is rejected with HTTP status code 400 (Bad Request).

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Failed Request Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.FailedRequestFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Failed Request Filter does not support any initialization parameters.

    HTTP Header Security Filter

    Introduction

    There are a number of HTTP headers that can be added to the response to improve the security of the connection. This filter provides a mechanism for adding those headers. Note that security related headers with more complex requirements, like CORS, are implemented as separate Filters.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the HTTP Header Security Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.HttpHeaderSecurityFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The HTTP Header Security Filter supports the following initialization parameters:

    Attribute Description
    hstsEnabled

    Will an HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) header (Strict-Transport-Security) be set on the response for secure requests. Any HSTS header already present will be replaced. See RFC 6797 for further details of HSTS. If not specified, the default value of true will be used.

    hstsMaxAgeSeconds

    The max age value that should be used in the HSTS header. Negative values will be treated as zero. If not specified, the default value of 0 will be used.

    hstsIncludeSubDomains

    Should the includeSubDomains parameter be included in the HSTS header. If not specified, the default value of false will be used.

    hstsPreload

    Should the preload parameter be included in the HSTS header. If not specified, the default value of false will be used. See https://hstspreload.org for important information about this parameter.

    antiClickJackingEnabled

    Should the anti click-jacking header (X-Frame-Options) be set on the response. Any anti click-jacking header already present will be replaced. If not specified, the default value of true will be used.

    antiClickJackingOption

    What value should be used for the anticlick-jacking header? Must be one of DENY, SAMEORIGIN, ALLOW-FROM (case-insensitive). If not specified, the default value of DENY will be used.

    antiClickJackingUri

    If ALLOW-FROM is used for antiClickJackingOption, what URI should be allowed? If not specified, the default value of an empty string will be used.

    blockContentTypeSniffingEnabled

    Should the header that blocks content type sniffing (X-Content-Type-Options) be set on every response. If already present, the header will be replaced. If not specified, the default value of true will be used.

    xssProtectionEnabled

    Should the header that enables the browser's cross-site scripting filter protection (X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block) be set on every response. If already present, the header will be replaced. If not specified, the default value of true will be used.

    Remote Address Filter

    Introduction

    The Remote Address Filter allows you to compare the IP address of the client that submitted this request against one or more regular expressions, and either allow the request to continue or refuse to process the request from this client.

    The syntax for regular expressions is different than that for 'standard' wildcard matching. Tomcat uses the java.util.regex package. Please consult the Java documentation for details of the expressions supported.

    Note: There is a caveat when using this filter with IPv6 addresses. Format of the IP address that this valve is processing depends on the API that was used to obtain it. If the address was obtained from Java socket using Inet6Address class, its format will be x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x. That is, the IP address for localhost will be 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 instead of the more widely used ::1. Consult your access logs for the actual value.

    See also: Remote Host Filter.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Remote Address Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteAddrFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Remote Address Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    allow

    A regular expression (using java.util.regex) that the remote client's IP address is compared to. If this attribute is specified, the remote address MUST match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, all requests will be accepted UNLESS the remote address matches a deny pattern.

    deny

    A regular expression (using java.util.regex) that the remote client's IP address is compared to. If this attribute is specified, the remote address MUST NOT match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, request acceptance is governed solely by the accept attribute.

    denyStatus

    HTTP response status code that is used when rejecting denied request. The default value is 403. For example, it can be set to the value 404.

    Example

    To allow access only for the clients connecting from localhost:

        <filter>
          <filter-name>Remote Address Filter</filter-name>
          <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteAddrFilter</filter-class>
          <init-param>
            <param-name>allow</param-name>
            <param-value>127\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+|::1|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1</param-value>
          </init-param>
        </filter>
        <filter-mapping>
          <filter-name>Remote Address Filter</filter-name>
          <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
        </filter-mapping>

    Remote Host Filter

    Introduction

    The Remote Host Filter allows you to compare the hostname of the client that submitted this request against one or more regular expressions, and either allow the request to continue or refuse to process the request from this client.

    The syntax for regular expressions is different than that for 'standard' wildcard matching. Tomcat uses the java.util.regex package. Please consult the Java documentation for details of the expressions supported.

    Note: This filter processes the value returned by method ServletRequest.getRemoteHost(). To allow the method to return proper host names, you have to enable "DNS lookups" feature on a Connector.

    See also: Remote Address Filter, HTTP Connector configuration.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Remote Address Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteHostFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Remote Host Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    allow

    A regular expression (using java.util.regex) that the remote client's hostname is compared to. If this attribute is specified, the remote hostname MUST match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, all requests will be accepted UNLESS the remote hostname matches a deny pattern.

    deny

    A regular expression (using java.util.regex) that the remote client's hostname is compared to. If this attribute is specified, the remote hostname MUST NOT match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, request acceptance is governed solely by the accept attribute.

    denyStatus

    HTTP response status code that is used when rejecting denied request. The default value is 403. For example, it can be set to the value 404.

    Remote CIDR Filter

    Introduction

    The Remote CIDR Filter allows you to compare the IP address of the client that submitted this request against one or more netmasks following the CIDR notation, and either allow the request to continue or refuse to process the request from this client. IPv4 and IPv6 are both fully supported.

    This filter mimicks Apache httpd's Order, Allow from and Deny from directives, with the following limitations:

    • Order will always be allow, deny;
    • dotted quad notations for netmasks are not supported (that is, you cannot write 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0, you must write 192.168.1.0/24;
    • shortcuts, like 10.10., which is equivalent to 10.10.0.0/16, are not supported;
    • as the filter name says, this is a CIDR only filter, therefore subdomain notations like .mydomain.com are not supported either.

    Some more features of this filter are:

    • if you omit the CIDR prefix, this filter becomes a single IP filter;
    • unlike the Remote Host Filter, it can handle IPv6 addresses in condensed form (::1, fe80::/71, etc).

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Remote Address Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteCIDRFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Remote CIDR Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    allow

    A comma-separated list of IPv4 or IPv6 netmasks or addresses that the remote client's IP address is matched against. If this attribute is specified, the remote address MUST match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, all requests will be accepted UNLESS the remote IP is matched by a netmask in the deny attribute.

    deny

    A comma-separated list of IPv4 or IPv6 netmasks or addresses that the remote client's IP address is matched against. If this attribute is specified, the remote address MUST NOT match for this request to be accepted. If this attribute is not specified, request acceptance is governed solely by the accept attribute.

    Example

    To allow access only for the clients connecting from localhost:

          <filter>
          <filter-name>Remote CIDR Filter</filter-name>
          <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteCIDRFilter</filter-class>
          <init-param>
          <param-name>allow</param-name>
          <param-value>127.0.0.0/8, ::1</param-value>
          </init-param>
          </filter>
          <filter-mapping>
          <filter-name>Remote CIDR Filter</filter-name>
          <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
          </filter-mapping>
        

    Remote IP Filter

    Introduction

    Tomcat port of mod_remoteip, this filter replaces the apparent client remote IP address and hostname for the request with the IP address list presented by a proxy or a load balancer via a request headers (e.g. "X-Forwarded-For").

    Another feature of this filter is to replace the apparent scheme (http/https), server port and request.secure with the scheme presented by a proxy or a load balancer via a request header (e.g. "X-Forwarded-Proto").

    If used in conjunction with Remote Address/Host filters then this filter should be defined first to ensure that the correct client IP address is presented to the Remote Address/Host filters.

    Note: By default this filter has no effect on the values that are written into access log. The original values are restored when request processing leaves the filter and that always happens earlier than access logging. To pass the remote address, remote host, server port and protocol values set by this filter to the access log, they are put into request attributes. Publishing these values here is enabled by default, but AccessLogValve should be explicitly configured to use them. See documentation for requestAttributesEnabled attribute of AccessLogValve.

    The names of request attributes that are set by this filter and can be used by access logging are the following:

    • org.apache.catalina.AccessLog.RemoteAddr
    • org.apache.catalina.AccessLog.RemoteHost
    • org.apache.catalina.AccessLog.Protocol
    • org.apache.catalina.AccessLog.ServerPort
    • org.apache.tomcat.remoteAddr

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Remote IP Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter .

    Basic configuration to handle 'x-forwarded-for'

    The filter will process the x-forwarded-for http header.

          <filter>
            <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
            <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
          </filter>
    
          <filter-mapping>
            <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
            <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
            <dispatcher>REQUEST</dispatcher>
          </filter-mapping>

    Basic configuration to handle 'x-forwarded-for' and 'x-forwarded-proto'

    The filter will process x-forwarded-for and x-forwarded-proto http headers. Expected value for the x-forwarded-proto header in case of SSL connections is https (case insensitive).

          <filter>
            <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
            <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
            <init-param>
              <param-name>protocolHeader</param-name>
              <param-value>x-forwarded-proto</param-value>
            </init-param>
          </filter>
    
          <filter-mapping>
            <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
            <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
            <dispatcher>REQUEST</dispatcher>
          </filter-mapping>

    Advanced configuration with internal proxies

    RemoteIpFilter configuration:

         <filter>
           <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
           <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>allowedInternalProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>192\.168\.0\.10|192\.168\.0\.11</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-for</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpProxiesHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-by</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>protocolHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-proto</param-value>
           </init-param>
         </filter>

    Request values:

    Property Value Before RemoteIpFilter Value After RemoteIpFilter
    request.remoteAddr 192.168.0.10 140.211.11.130
    request.header['x-forwarded-for'] 140.211.11.130, 192.168.0.10 null
    request.header['x-forwarded-by'] null null
    request.header['x-forwarded-proto'] https https
    request.scheme http https
    request.secure false true
    request.serverPort 80 443

    Note : x-forwarded-by header is null because only internal proxies has been traversed by the request. x-forwarded-for is null because all the proxies are trusted or internal.

    Advanced configuration with trusted proxies

    RemoteIpFilter configuration:

         <filter>
           <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
           <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>allowedInternalProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>192\.168\.0\.10|192\.168\.0\.11</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-for</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpProxiesHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-by</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>trustedProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>proxy1|proxy2</param-value>
           </init-param>
         </filter>

    Request values:

    Property Value Before RemoteIpFilter Value After RemoteIpFilter
    request.remoteAddr 192.168.0.10 140.211.11.130
    request.header['x-forwarded-for'] 140.211.11.130, proxy1, proxy2 null
    request.header['x-forwarded-by'] null proxy1, proxy2

    Note : proxy1 and proxy2 are both trusted proxies that come in x-forwarded-for header, they both are migrated in x-forwarded-by header. x-forwarded-for is null because all the proxies are trusted or internal.

    Advanced configuration with internal and trusted proxies

    RemoteIpFilter configuration:

         <filter>
           <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
           <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>allowedInternalProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>192\.168\.0\.10|192\.168\.0\.11</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-for</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpProxiesHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-by</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>trustedProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>proxy1|proxy2</param-value>
           </init-param>
         </filter>

    Request values:

    Property Value Before RemoteIpFilter Value After RemoteIpFilter
    request.remoteAddr 192.168.0.10 140.211.11.130
    request.header['x-forwarded-for'] 140.211.11.130, proxy1, proxy2, 192.168.0.10 null
    request.header['x-forwarded-by'] null proxy1, proxy2

    Note : proxy1 and proxy2 are both trusted proxies that come in x-forwarded-for header, they both are migrated in x-forwarded-by header. As 192.168.0.10 is an internal proxy, it does not appear in x-forwarded-by. x-forwarded-for is null because all the proxies are trusted or internal.

    Advanced configuration with an untrusted proxy

    RemoteIpFilter configuration:

         <filter>
           <filter-name>RemoteIpFilter</filter-name>
           <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter</filter-class>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>allowedInternalProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>192\.168\.0\.10|192\.168\.0\.11</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-for</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>remoteIpProxiesHeader</param-name>
             <param-value>x-forwarded-by</param-value>
           </init-param>
           <init-param>
             <param-name>trustedProxies</param-name>
             <param-value>proxy1|proxy2</param-value>
           </init-param>
         </filter>

    Request values:

    Property Value Before RemoteIpFilter Value After RemoteIpFilter
    request.remoteAddr 192.168.0.10 untrusted-proxy
    request.header['x-forwarded-for'] 140.211.11.130, untrusted-proxy, proxy1 140.211.11.130
    request.header['x-forwarded-by'] null proxy1

    Note : x-forwarded-by holds the trusted proxy proxy1. x-forwarded-by holds 140.211.11.130 because untrusted-proxy is not trusted and thus, we cannot trust that untrusted-proxy is the actual remote ip. request.remoteAddr is untrusted-proxy that is an IP verified by proxy1.

    Initialisation parameters

    The Remote IP Filter supports the following initialisation parameters:

    Attribute Description
    remoteIpHeader

    Name of the HTTP Header read by this valve that holds the list of traversed IP addresses starting from the requesting client. If not specified, the default of x-forwarded-for is used.

    internalProxies

    Regular expression (using java.util.regex) that a proxy's IP address must match to be considered an internal proxy. Internal proxies that appear in the remoteIpHeader will be trusted and will not appear in the proxiesHeader value. If not specified the default value of 10\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|192\.168\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|169\.254\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|127\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|172\.1[6-9]{1}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|172\.2[0-9]{1}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|172\.3[0-1]{1}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 will be used.

    proxiesHeader

    Name of the HTTP header created by this valve to hold the list of proxies that have been processed in the incoming remoteIpHeader. If not specified, the default of x-forwarded-by is used.

    requestAttributesEnabled

    Set to true to set the request attributes used by AccessLog implementations to override the values returned by the request for remote address, remote host, server port and protocol. Request attributes are also used to enable the forwarded remote address to be displayed on the status page of the Manager web application. If not set, the default value of true will be used.

    trustedProxies

    Regular expression (using java.util.regex) that a proxy's IP address must match to be considered an trusted proxy. Trusted proxies that appear in the remoteIpHeader will be trusted and will appear in the proxiesHeader value. If not specified, no proxies will be trusted.

    protocolHeader

    Name of the HTTP Header read by this valve that holds the protocol used by the client to connect to the proxy. If not specified, the default of null is used.

    portHeader

    Name of the HTTP Header read by this valve that holds the port used by the client to connect to the proxy. If not specified, the default of null is used.

    protocolHeaderHttpsValue

    Value of the protocolHeader to indicate that it is an HTTPS request. If not specified, the default of https is used.

    httpServerPort

    Value returned by ServletRequest.getServerPort() when the protocolHeader indicates http protocol and no portHeader is present. If not specified, the default of 80 is used.

    httpsServerPort

    Value returned by ServletRequest.getServerPort() when the protocolHeader indicates https protocol and no portHeader is present. If not specified, the default of 443 is used.

    changeLocalPort

    If true, the value returned by ServletRequest.getLocalPort() and ServletRequest.getServerPort() is modified by the this filter. If not specified, the default of false is used.

    Request Dumper Filter

    Introduction

    The Request Dumper Filter logs information from the request and response objects and is intended to be used for debugging purposes. When using this Filter, it is recommended that the org.apache.catalina.filter.RequestDumperFilter logger is directed to a dedicated file and that the org.apache.juli.VerbatimFormatter is used.

    WARNING: Using this filter has side-effects. The output from this filter includes any parameters included with the request. The parameters will be decoded using the default platform encoding. Any subsequent calls to request.setCharacterEncoding() within the web application will have no effect.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Request Dumper Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.RequestDumperFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Request Dumper Filter does not support any initialization parameters.

    Sample Configuration

    The following entries in a web application's web.xml would enable the Request Dumper filter for all requests for that web application. If the entries were added to CATALINA_BASE/conf/web.xml, the Request Dumper Filter would be enabled for all web applications.

    <filter>
        <filter-name>requestdumper</filter-name>
        <filter-class>
            org.apache.catalina.filters.RequestDumperFilter
        </filter-class>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
        <filter-name>requestdumper</filter-name>
        <url-pattern>*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    The following entries in CATALINA_BASE/conf/logging.properties would create a separate log file for the Request Dumper Filter output.

    # To this configuration below, 1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler
    # also needs to be added to the handlers property near the top of the file
    1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler.level = INFO
    1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler.directory = ${catalina.base}/logs
    1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler.prefix = request-dumper.
    1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler.formatter = org.apache.juli.VerbatimFormatter
    org.apache.catalina.filters.RequestDumperFilter.level = INFO
    org.apache.catalina.filters.RequestDumperFilter.handlers = \
      1request-dumper.org.apache.juli.FileHandler

    Session Initializer Filter

    Introduction

    The Session Initializer Filter initializes the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession before the Request is processed. This is required for JSR-356 compliant WebSocket implementations, if the HttpSession is needed during the HandShake phase.

    The Java API for WebSocket does not mandate that an HttpSession would be initialized upon request, and thus javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest's getSession() returns null if the HttpSession was not initialized in advance.

    This filter solves that problem by initializing the HttpSession for any HttpServletRequest that matches its url-pattern.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Session Initializer Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.SessionInitializerFilter.

    Initialisation parameters

    The Session Initializer Filter does not support any initialization parameters.

    Sample Configuration

    The following entries in the Web Application Deployment Descriptor, web.xml, would enable the Session Initializer Filter for requests that match the given URL pattern (in this example, "/ws/*").

    <filter>
        <filter-name>SessionInitializer</filter-name>
        <filter-class>org.apache.catalina.filters.SessionInitializerFilter</filter-class>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
        <filter-name>SessionInitializer</filter-name>
        <url-pattern>/ws/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    Set Character Encoding Filter

    Introduction

    User agents don't always include character encoding information in requests. Depending on the how the request is processed, usually the default encoding of ISO-8859-1 is used. This is not always desirable. This filter provides options for setting that encoding or forcing it to a particular value. Essentially this filter calls ServletRequest.setCharacterEncoding() method.

    Effectively the value set by this filter is used when parsing parameters in a POST request, if parameter parsing occurs later than this filter. Thus the order of filter mappings is important. Note that the encoding for GET requests is not set here, but on a Connector. See CharacterEncoding page in the FAQ for details.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the Set Character Encoding Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.SetCharacterEncodingFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The Set Character Encoding Filter supports the following initialization parameters:

    Attribute Description
    encoding

    Name of the character encoding which should be set.

    ignore

    Determines if any character encoding specified by the user agent is ignored. If this attribute is true, any value provided by the user agent is ignored. If false, the encoding is only set if the user agent did not specify an encoding. The default value is false.

    WebDAV Fix Filter

    Introduction

    Microsoft operating systems have two WebDAV clients. One is used with port 80, the other is used for all other ports. The implementation used with port 80 does not adhere to the WebDAV specification and fails when trying to communicate with the Tomcat WebDAV Servlet. This Filter provides a fix for this by forcing the use of the WebDAV implementation that works, even when connecting via port 80.

    Filter Class Name

    The filter class name for the WebDAV Fix Filter is org.apache.catalina.filters.WebdavFixFilter .

    Initialisation parameters

    The WebDAV Fix Filter does not support any initialization parameters.

    Comments

    Notice: This comments section collects your suggestions on improving documentation for Apache Tomcat.

    If you have trouble and need help, read Find Help page and ask your question on the tomcat-users mailing list. Do not ask such questions here. This is not a Q&A section.

    The Apache Comments System is explained here. Comments may be removed by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic.

    内蒙古11选5开奖结果